Glossary

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R.O.P.
Run-of-paper position; any location or position in a publication convenient to publisher; distinguished from specific preferred position.

RAISED CAP
Display letter that is set above the text or dropped into the text.

RATE
A charge for advertising media space or time.

RATE BASE
The circulation level of a print vehicle used in setting rates for advertising space charge.

RATE BOOK
A printed book that is designed to provide advertising rates for several media vehicles; for example, Standard Rate and Data Service.

RATE CARD
Card or folder giving space or time rates of an advertising medium and data on mechanical requirements and closing dates issued by the owner of the medium; all rate cards are summarized in SRDS for the USA.

RATE DIFFERENTIAL
Among newspapers, the difference between the national and the local rates.

RATE GUARANTEE
Media commitment that an advertising rate will not be increased during a certain calendar period.

RATE HOLDER
A minimum sized advertisement placed in a publication during a contract period to hold a time or quantity discount rate. Also, an ID spot bought by the advertiser for the same reason.

RATE PROTECTION
A guarantee that an advertiser's current rate under the old rate card will be protected for a period, usually from three to six months, should a new rate be introduced.

RATING
The percentage of the potential broadcast audience that is tuned to a particular station, network, or program: the audience of a vehicle expressed as a percentage of the total population of an area.

RATING POINT
A rating of one percent: one percent of the potential audience; the sum of the ratings of multiple advertising insertions; for example, two advertisements with a rating of 10 percent each will total 20 rating points.

REACH
The number of different persons or homes exposed to a specific media vehicle or schedule at least once. Usually measured over a specific period of time, e.g., four weeks. Also know as cume, cumulative, unduplicated, or net audience.

REACH, CUMULATIVE
The total number of homes reached by a medium during a specific time period.

READ MOST
Starch ad readership measurement term referring to magazine or newspaper readers who read 50 percent or more of the copy of a specific advertisement.

READER IMPRESSION STUDIES
Studies carried out by Starch over and above their regular Readerhsip Study to find out something of what the advertisement meant to respondents who "noted" the ad.

READER INTEREST
Expression of interest by readers in advertisement they have read. Sometimes evaluated by unsolicited mail. Sometimes evaluated by the numbers of people who can remember having read material with interest. Also, an evaluation of the relative level of general interest in different types of products.

READER TRAFFIC
The movement from page to page by readers of a publication.

READERS
People who are exposed to a print vehicle.

READERS PER COPY
The average number of readers of a magazine per copy of circulation. When multiplied by a magazine's circulation, the result equals its audience.

READERSHIP
1. Ratio of those actually reading it to the total circulation of a medium or to the estimated number who see the medium, where the ratios is 2 to 1 or more, that is multiple or pass-along readership.
2. Varying degree in which parts of an advertising medium (editorial or advertising) are read.

READERSHIP OR AUDIENCE
The total average number of persons who are exposed to a publication as distinguished from the circulation or number of copies distributed.

READERSHIP SURVEY
An investigation of the degree to which a publication or some part of it, especially the advertising in general or a particular advertisement, is read.

REBATE
1. Refund of advertising payment when less space is used than originally charged for.
2. Refund, as of advertising payment, because of error or reduced circulation.

RECENT READING
A measurement technique for magazines in which survey respondents check a list of magazines they have read recently.

RECOGNITION
The technique used to determine whether a person saw or heard a given print advertisement or broadcast commercial by actually showing the ad or commercial (or playing it) and inquiring whether he or she saw or heard it at a previous date in a specific medium. This technique was pioneered and is still being used by Starch.

REGIONAL EDITION
A geographical section of a national magazine/newspaper's circulation that can be purchased by an advertiser without having to purchase the rest of the newspaper/magazine's circulation (as is required in a split run). A higher premium is usually paid for regional editions and demographic editions.

REGRESSION ANALYSIS/MODELING
A statistical technique wherein two or more customer files are matched and/or mailed against each other to produce "look-alikes". The objective can be either to weed out poor prospects or to identify good ones for promotion purposes. Many list owners now offer regression to make renting segments of large lists economically feasible for more mailers.

REIMS (Remuneration of Exchanges of International Mail System)
A country-specific, cost-based international postal terminal dues system that has replaced the CEPT system (see definition) in some European countries.

REINFORCEMENT ADVERTISING
Advertising that supports your main selling campaign  e.g., if TV is your primary medium, billboards in key markets might carry reinforcement advertising.

REMAIL POINT (HUB/CITY)
The city where mail is taken to be remailed usually because a more favorable rate can be obtained, but sometimes for other reasons, such as faster delivery to nearby destinations.

REMINDER ADVERTISING
An advertisement, usually brief, that is intended to keep the name of a product or service before the public; often, a supplement to other advertising.

REMIT
The portion of a sale remitted to a publisher after a subscription agent s commission is deducted.

REMNANT SPACE
Magazine space sold at reduced price to help fill out regional editions.

RENEWAL AT BITH
Also called a collection extension. An upsell ofer, often on the bill for a credit subscription, and usually at a lower price per copy than the original offer. For auditing purposes, not to be counted as separate subscriptions if the transaction takes place within 60 days of the date of original order.

RENEWAL INCENTIVE
A premium offered in a billing effort as an extra incentive to pay for the renewal.

RENEWAL RATE
Number of renewals sold to a block of expires, divided by the number of expires available for renewal in that block. Expressed as a percentage.

RENEWAL SERIES
A scheduled series of direct mail efforts sent to a group of subscribers. Usually starts well before expiration date and generally continues a few months pas expiration date.

RENEWALS
Names of individuals or companies removed from the mailing list of a publication.
In print: refers to a magazine or newspaper subscriptions which people extend past their expiration dates. In outdoor advertising: extra posters over and above the quantity actually needed to post the exact number of panels in a showing. They are shipped to the plant operator and, if one of the posters on display is damaged, the plant operator has a complete poster design on hand to replace immediately the damaged poster.

REP
A salesperson who represents a medium or a supplier.

REPLACEMENT MEDIA
Local media that are being used to replace national media in a test market or expansion area, e.g., local rotogravure supplements, comic sections, black-and-white daily newspapers.

REPRESENTATIVE (OR REP)
A general term used to describe sales representatives for media vehicles. A representative firm usually handles several vehicles, serving as their sales agent and taking commissions on the sales they make; salespersons may also be directly employed by stations or publications.

REPRO PROOF
Proof of a typesetting clean and perfect enough to be photographed as part of an ad s artwork.

REQUEST CIRCULATION
See "Direct Request".

RESPONSE FUNCTION
An effect of an ad in a medium, sometimes called impact. These effects may be attitude change, degrees of brand awareness, or sales.

RETAIL SALES
Total Retail Sales reflects net sales (minus refunds and allowances for returns) for all establishments primarily engaged in retail trade. Retail sales by wholesalers and service establishments are not included.

RETAIL TRADING ZONE (RTZ)
The area beyond the city zone whose residents regularly trade to an important degree with retail merchants in the city zone. These are defined by the Audit Bureau of Circulation.

RETURN AFFIDAVIT
A document issued by the wholesaler and accepted by the publisher and national distributor in lieu of actual covers of unsold magazines. The affidavit certifies the number of returns and their destruction by the wholesaler.

RETURN or RESPONSE
See "Gross Response" and "Net Response".

RETURNS
In single-copy sales, magazines that are distributed but not sold. In most cases, unsold copies are returned to the wholesaler, who processes and records them, issues credit records, shreds the copies, and verifies, by affidavit, that the returns have been destroyed.

RETURNS PER THOUSAND CIRCULATION
A gauge of the efectiveness of media used in support of promotions computed by dividing the total number of returns by the circulation of the publication to which the returns are attributable.

REVERSE
Line art in which the original colors of black and white are reversed; i.e., the black comes out white and vice versa.

RIDING THE SHOWING
A physical inspection of the panels that comprise an advertising buy.

RIPPLE DISSOLVE
A TV transition that appears as though water has rippled across the screen, washing away one scene and revealing another. Often used for "flashbacks", dream sequences, etc. Also called shimmer dissolve.

ROADBLOCK or ROADBLOCKING
Slang term for placing television announcements at the same time on two or more networks, or at the same time on several stations in a single market; used as a remedy to channel switching during a commercial break.

ROLL-OUT
A marketing strategy technique in which a brand is introduced in a limited geographical area. If it succeeds in that area, it is then introduced in adjacent areas and, if successful, in other adjacent areas until the entire country is covered.

ROMAN TYPE
Type with vertical emphasis in contrast to italic or oblique.

ROP
Short form for run of paper, sometimes a term used for Display Advertising advertisements published in any position throughout the newspaper/magazine convenient to the make-up of the publication, as distinguished from Classified.

ROP COLOR
Color printing that is done during the regular press run.

ROS
Run Of Schedule. Broadcast commercial announcement that can be scheduled at the station s discretion anytime; in some cases, the advertiser can specify or request certain time periods; for example; ROS 10:00 a.m.  4:00 p.m. Monday  Friday.

ROTARY
Printing from plates on cylinders.

ROTARY DISPLAY
The purchase of painted bulletins whereby the display face is periodically rotated to new locations in order to achieve more balanced coverage of a market.

ROTATING PAINTED BULLETINS
Moving the advertiser's copy from one painted bulletin to another, usually every sixty days. This service is available in most major cities. Offers advertiser an opportunity to cover a large area or a given market (over a long period of time) with a limited number of painted bulletins.

ROTATION
The practice in store management of moving the older stock forward when restocking shelves or cases. The practice, in retail advertising, of scheduling a branded product or group of products to be featured at intervals throughout the year to maintain a desired stock balance. Also, the process of continuing a series of advertisements over and over again in a regular order.

ROTATION (WEB)
In a rotation, a specif web page contains a single banner window. All advertising banners scheduled for the rotation are arranged in an endless loop or series. When a web user enters the page, the next banner in line is displayed. After the last banner, the rotation begins again with banner one.

ROTOGRAVURE (ROTO OR GRAVURE)
Printing process where an impression is produced by sunken or deep etched letters or pictures in a coper printing plate. The ink is held in indentation in the plates, not on the surface as in offset, or on the tops of dots or letters as in letterpress.

ROUGH LAYOUT
A pencil drawing of a proposed ad, drawn to actual size. Also called semi-comp. Headlines and subheads may be lettered in or shown with pencil lines, body copy is simulated with lines, artwork and intended photographs are at least roughly indicated, logo shown, etc.

RUN OF PRESS (ROP)
A newspaper advertisement for which a definite position is not specified is inserted as run of press (or run of book), but usually in the general news sections. The term is also used in connection which color newspaper advertising to distinguish color advertising in the main portion of the paper form that placed in the magazine section (Sunday supplement).

RUN OF SCHEDULE (ROS)
A broadcast commercial for which a definite time is not specified. For example, a nighttime commercial during prime time may be run at any time during this period. Also, the time at which an announcement runs may vary from week to week, depending upon other requirements.