Glossary

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DAGMAR
Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results – developed by Richard Colley – advocates adoption of communications goals rather than marketing or sales goals as a fairer test of advertising effectiveness.

DAILY RATE
The rate a newspaper charges for space in its weekday editions as opposed to the rate for the Sunday or weekend editions.

DATABASE MARKETING
In its true sense, refers to using relational computer systems that allow for maintaining multi-product purchasing history and all other data on a customer. This allows all data on the customer to be readily accessed and cross-referenced for marketing purposes, including cross-selling and upselling. Such systems are becoming increasingly common among publishers and all types of businesses.

DAYPARTS
Specific segments of the broadcast day; for example, daytime, early fringe, prime time, late fringe, late night.

DEADLINE
The final date for accepting advertising material to meet a publication or broadcast schedule (see Closing date).

DEALER IMPRINT
Inserting a local dealer’s identification into nationally prepared advertising.

DEALER TIE-IN
A manufacturer’s announcement that lists local dealers; not the same as “co-op”.

DELAYED BROADCAST (DB)
A local station broadcasting a network program at a time other than its regularly scheduled network time.

DELETE
A kill or cancel, sometimes initiated by the subscriber, or, particularly with controlled titles, by the publisher. Agency cancels (see definition) are an exception.

DELIVERY
The ability to reach or communicate with a certain audience or number of people by using a particular advertising schedule; the physical delivery of a publication.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
Physical analysis, such as sex, age, education, occupation, used to describe a population.

DEMOGRAPHIC EDITION
An edition carrying additional, targeted advertising and/or editorial matter that is distributed to a specific, demographically defined segment within a magazine’s circulation.

DENSITY RANGE
The difference in density between the lightest and darkest tones.

DESATURED COLOR
A color that appears faded, printed with too little ink, or as though white had been mixed with the colorant.

DESCENDER
A stroke of a lowercase letter that drops below the body and baseline (as in g, j, p, q, and y).

DIALOGUE/MONOLOGUE COPY
A type of body copy in which the characters illustrated in the advertisement do the selling in their own words either through a testimonial technique or through a comic strip panel.

DIFFERENTIAL (Newspaper)
The difference in newspaper rates charged local and national advertisers. Most newspapers continue to charge higher rates to national advertisers.

DIGEST UNIT
See Junior Unit

DINGBAT
Collective name for all symbols and ornaments, such as stars, pointing fingers, and arrows; used for decorative touches, bullets, and highlights.

DIRECT ADVERTISING
Advertising that is under complete control of the advertiser, rather than through some established medium; for example, direct mail or free sampling.

DIRECT DISTRIBUTION
In single-copy sales, an alternative to the traditional mass-market distribution system that bypasses the wholesaler and, generally, the national distributor. Direct distributors oversee the parcel shipping of specific numbers of magazine copies to individual stores. Often, retailers receive a larger discount off cover price under the direct system. The direct system covers many major bookstore and discount chains and specialty stores, but traditionally has not reached supermarkets and other major mass-market magazine outlets.

DIRECT ENTRY
The process of entering mail directly into another country’s mail stream for delivery within that country. Also known as “ABB remailing.” (Also see “Remailing.”)

DIRECT MAIL ADVERTISING
Letters, folders, reprints, or other material sent through the mails directly to prospective purchasers.

DIRECT MAIL AGENCY
Commissionable agencies that use direct mail co-op packages to sell subscriptions to magazines from various publishing companies. The largest of these, Publishers Clearing House and American Family Publishers, use sweepstakes promotions and “stampsheets” (showing one title per “stamp”) from which the subscriber makes a selection. These firms are also referred to as “stampsheet agencies.”

DIRECT MARKETING
Sales made directly to the customer, rather than through intermediaries or intervening channels: includes direct mail, direct advertising, telemarketing, and so forth.

DIRECT REQUEST
Often shortened to “request”. The most desirable type of controlled circulation, from most advertisers’ point of view. Direct request circulation consists of qualified individuals who have verified, in writting or over the telephone, their qualification and desire to receive the publication.

DIRECT RESPONSE ADVERTISING
Advertising material reproduced in quantity and distributed directly to prospects, either by mail, house-to-house delivery, bag stuffers, magazines and newspapers, or television. Allows prospect to respond directly to the advertiser rather than going through a retailer or other middleman.

DIRECTORY ADVERTISING
Advertising in a directory. Popularly used to signify any advertisingthan consumers may deliberately consult, i.e., department store or food advertisements.

DIRECTORY SOURCE
A type of controlled circulation source in which qualified individuals’ names are pulled from directories and added to the circulation file. Publishers generally seek to minimize the percentage of directory circulation and to convert directory names to direct request (see above).

DISCOUNT
A reduction from regular rates when an advertiser contracts to use quantities of advertising. Discounts in print may consider amount of space bought and frequency of insertion. Discounts in network broadcasting may be based upon number of dayparts used, frequency or weight, and length of contract; in local broadcasting, discounts will consider number of spots per week, length of contract, or purchase of plans or packages.

DISPLAY ADVERTISING
Ads that usually contain large type and/or illustrations or photographs and are larger in width than one column.

DISPLAY CLASIFFIED ADVERTISING
See Classified display advertising.

DISPLAY TYPE
Decorative type designed to be set at relatively large sizes (usually 18-points and up) and used in titles, headlines, signs, and the like.

DISSOLVE
In television, the fading out of one picture as a new picture fades in.

DMA
Designated Market Area – A geographic area of counties in which the home market TV stations have their strongest reach.

DOLLY
Television term whereby the entire camera moves forward or back.

DOMESTIC MAIL MANUAL (DMM)
The DMM is the comprehensive U.S. Postal Service guide to rules and regulations, including the sizes and formats allowable within various classes of mail.

DONOR
The purchaser of a gift subscription. (Also see “Non-Subscribing Donor.”)

DOUBE BURN
Use of two or more negatives to expose an image on a plate or positive print; used to combine lines and halftone material on the same plate.

DOUBLE-CARDING
A transit advertising term specifying two displays in each vehicle.

DOUBLE POSTCARD
A form of self-mailer (see definition) derived from the U.S. Postal Service double postcard, which includes a postpaid tear-off reply card. Module C100 of the Domestic Mail Manual (see definition) outlines the format specifications.

DOUBLE SPOTTING
See Piggyback.

DOUBLE SPREAD
Any two facing pages used for a single ad or feature.

DOUBLE TRUCK
A two-page spread in newspapers where the editorial or advertising runs across the gutter of the spread.

DOUGHNUT
A gap in the body of a recorded radio commercial into which live copy can be inserted at the local station.

DOWNSCALE
A general description of a medium's audience of lower socioeconomic class members.

DRAW
In singly-copy sales, the number of copies of each issue of a particular title that are distributed to specific wholesalers and retail outlets. Determined on the basis of a title’s sales history or typical sales of similar titles in a specific store or area.

DRIVE TIME
Radio broadcast time during morning and evening commuter rush hours.

DROP
Any subscription leaving the subscription list. Also used to mean “drop date”, the day a mailing is entered in the postal stream.

DROP CAP
Large capital letter that drops into the surrounding text.

DROPOUT TYPE
Type appearing white on a dark background.

DRTV (Direct Response Television)
Some consumer and paid business titles use television commercials as one subscription source. This is generally quite expensive, but may be cost-effective under certain circumstances. May be desirable for raising a title’s awareness with potential readers and advertisers, as well as helping to attract new subscribers.

DUMMY
A diagram showing the position and arrangement of ads and news.

DUNNING LETTER
Letter accompanying an invoice.

DUOTONE
A term for a two-color halftone reproduction from a  one-color photograph.

DUPES
Duplicate transparencies are reproductions of an original transparency made for the purpose of changing size or making additional copies.
In TV, copies of a finished TV commercial that are delivered to the networks or TV stations for airing (also called “dubs”).

DUPLICATION
That part of the circulation or audience of two advertising media that is served or reached twice by the same publication or advertisement.

DUTCH DOORS
In magazines, vertical half-page gatefolds which fold inward on both side of a two-page spread.