Glossary

A  - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - XYZ

P4C
Abbreviation for Page/Four-Color. Other abbreviations are P2C (Page/Two-Color), PB&W (Page/Black and White), 3/5P4C (3/5 Page/Four-Color), 2C (Second Cover), BC (Back Cover), etc.

PACKAGE
A combination of programs or commercials, or advertisements offered by a network/publisher as as entity at one price

PACKAGE ENCLOSURE
A premium enclosed in a package..

PACKAGE GOODS
Non-promotional, non-coupon package goods advertisements -food, household supplies, drugs, beer, alcoholic beverages. They require a minimum schedule of page insertions during a contract year.

PACKAGE PLAN DISCOUNT
A spot television discount plan for buying a certain number of spots, usually within a one-week period.

PACKAGER
An individual or company that produces packaged program series; also called "syndicator".

PAGE VIEWS
A count of web pages accessed by users. Non-document files, such as graphics, are excluded – making this and user sessions the two most meaningful measurements of overallweb site traffic. Also known as "page impressions".

PAGINATION
The process where editorial and advertising elements are created in actual size on a video screen.

PAID CIRCULATION
The number of print copies that are purchased by audience members.

PAID SUBSCRIBER
Purchaser of publication of a term contract whose subscription qualifies as paid circulation in accordance with established rules.

PAID-ON-DELIVERY SUBSCRIPTION
Term subscription, the price for each issue of which is collected when it is delivered or, in case an advance payment is made with order, the prorated balance is collected at time of delivery of each issue.

PAINTED BULLETINS
Large outdoor advertising structures, most commonly 14 feet by 48 feet. Copy is reproduced by painting directly on the surface or posting paper with the advertising preprinted.

PAINTED DISPLAYS
Large outdoor painted bulletins, normally 14’ by 48’ or larger, meant for long term use. Usually illuminated, often feature three-dimensional cutouts, plastic facing, back-lighting, moving messages, etc.

PAN
Horizontal movement of camera head, left or right, from a fixed pivot.

PANEL
A fixed sample of respondents or stores selected to participate in a research project who report periodically on their knowledge, attitudes, and activities. This is in contrast to the technique of using fresh samples each time. Also a master TV or radio control board, usually in a master control room.

PANELS
Regular and illuminated units of outdoor advertising. A regular panel is a billboard that is not lighted at night. An illuminated panel is a billboard that is lighted from dusk until midnight.

PARTIAL SHOWING
An outdoor showing of less than 25.

PASS-ALONG CIRCULATION
Copies of a publication that come to the attention of others than the subscriber, since he/she makes them available to some non-subscribers.

PASS-ALONG READER
A person who reads a publication that he or a member of his family did not purchase. These readers must be taken into account in determining the total numbers of readers of a particular issue or a particular publication.

PASTEUP
An accurate assembly of all the elements of the printed piece; text and illustrations are pasted in their exact positions for reproduction.

PARTICIPATION
A commercial announcement within a broadcast program, as compared with one scheduled between programs; also called "participating announcement".

PARTICIPATION PROGRAM
A broadcast program with each segment sponsored by a different advertiser.

PASS-ALONG READERS
Readers of a publication who acquire a copy other than by purchase or subscription (see Secondary audience).

PAY CABLE
Cable television programming for which the audience must pay or subscribe.

PAY-ON-SCAN or PAY-ON-SALE (POS)
Pay-on-scan and pay-on-sale refer to the practice of basing retail sales figures for magazines solely on the number of sales recorded through checkout scanning, as opposed to the traditional system of returning unsold magazine covers. (Also see "Returns").

PENALTY COSTS
In test market and expansion operation, this refers to the premium paid for local replacement media compared with the national media that the brand would be using under their national plan.

PENETRATION
The percentage of total homes in a specified area owning at least one medium set.

PENETRATION STUDY
The study of effectiveness of advertising on the public.

PEOPLE METER
Slang for a broadcast ratings measurement device that records individual audience members who are present during a program.

PER-CAPITA EFFECTIVE BUYING INCOME
This is an arithmetic average obtained by dividing Total Effective Buying Income by Total Population. It measures the total spending power to the number of people and is useful for comparing the relative level of income of different markets because it eliminates the impact of population size. However, because population is measured as of one date, whereas EBI is measured as a flow over the calendar year, a significant change in population during the year can distort the per capita figure.

PERCENT COVERAGE
In print media: the total audience of a publication as a percent of the total population. Or, the circulation of a publication as a percent of total homes. In broadcast media: the number of homes that are able to receive a signal of specific strength, but which do not necessarily tune to the station(s). Or, all homes in cities,regions... which meet a minimum circulation criterion (e.g., 50 percent).

PER INQUIRY ADVERTISING (P.I. Advertising)
An agreement between a media owner and an advertiser in which the owner agrees to accept payment for advertising on the basis of the number of inquiries or completed sales resulting from advertising, soliciting inquiries, or direct sales.

PER ISSUE RATE
A special magazine advertising rate that is determined by the number of issues that are used during the contract period; similar to a frequency discount, except not based on the number of advertisements, but rather on the number of issues in which an advertising campaign appears.

PERFECT BINDING
Method that produces flat opening, as in telephone directories; distinguished from side (saddle) stitching.

PHOTOCOMPOSITION
Computer typesetting.

PHOTOMECHANICAL TRANSFER (PMT)
Paper negative which produces a positive print by a process of chemical transfer.

PICA
Traditional typographic unit of printer’s measurement equal to 12 points or approximately 0.166 inches. There being six picas to the inch. Usually for horizontal measurement.

PICKUPS
Ads that are kept in folders in the ad services department until they run again. They are brought out to the composing room so the appropriate ad is placed on the proper page.

PIGGYBACK
Slang for two of a sponsor’s commercial announcements that are presented back-to-back within a single commercial time segment; for example, two 30-second commercials in a 60-second time slot; also called "double spotting".

PILOT
A sample production of a proposed broadcast program series.

PIN REGISTER
The use of accurately positioned holes and special pins on copy, film, plates and presses to insure proper register or fit of colors.

PINK SHEET
Slang for the ABC paid consumer publisher’s statement.

PIXEL
A single dot of light on a computer monitor screen is a pixel, the unit by which all web graphics are measured. If monitor'’ screen resolution is "800 x 600", it displays 800 pixels left-to-right and 600 pixels top-to-bottom. Monitor screens vary in both size and resolution, so there can be no fixed relantionship between "dots" and "inches" – like the "DPI" measurement common in print.

PLANS BOARD
An advertising agency committee that reviews campaign plans for clients.

PLUG
A free mention of aproduct or service.

PMSA
Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area; a geographical designation used by the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

POINT
Basic measurement of type; there are 12 points to the pica and about 72 points to the inch. A face’s point size is the distance from the top of its ascenders to the bottom of its descenders.

POINT-OF-PURCHASE DISPLAY
An advertising display at the place where consumers purchase goods or services (e.g., a banner or counter card at a retail outlet).

POINT-OF-SALE
Publisher and wholesaler in-store marketing activity.

POLYBAG
A plastic wrap around a magazine that allows enclosure of promotion materials and protects the magazine in the mail.

POPULATION
Updated from the National Census Bureau's. This is an estimate of how many people would have been counted in a given area by another census at the end of the year prior to this publication. A Census count is by "usual residence" (not necessarily the same as legal or voting residence), which is defined as the place where a person lives and sleeps most of the time, except that children in boarding schools below the college level are counted at their parental homes. Persons with no usual residence are counted as living where they are staying (or found) at the time of the census.

POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
Male and female population totals for ten age groups are useful for marketers who seek to aim their products or services at specific sales targets. For example, the 12-to 17 year-old population is a favorite target of those marketing soft drinks and compact discs. Several of the age groups are also associated with lifestyle stages a person passes through - such as the preschoolers (0-5 years), teen-agers(12-17 years), and young adults (18-24 years)- which are used in the formulation of marketing strategies.

PORTA-PANEL
A mobile poster panel that is wheeled to a given location.

POSITION
An advertisement's place on a page and the location of the page in the publication. A preferred position is an especially desirable position obtained by paying an extra charge, or granted to an advertiser who has placed a heavy schedule in a publication, occasionally rotated among advertisers who have contracted for space above a specified minimum. In broadcast, programs or time spots considered most desirable by advertisers.

POSITIONING
The way in which a product is perceived in the consumer’s mind in relation to the competition or certain target markets.

POSITIVE
1. Film made from a negative that reproduces light and shade as in the original subject and can be used for projection.
2. Generally, not reversed (see negative); a mat, or matrix is positive, a stereo is negative.

POST PLUS/SHARED MAIL
Delivered within 7 or 8 days of preprint insertion or ROP ad. Sold by zip/postal codes.

POST PLUS/SOLO MAIL
Available within 7 days of preprint insertion or ROP ad. Mail to an entire zip/postal code, sales zone, subscriber, non-subscribers, singly family homes or multiple occupant residences. Merge/purge and special lists processing are available.

POSTPRODUCTION
All the work done after the day of shooting to finish a TV commercial – including editing, processing film, recording sound effects, mixing audio and video, and duplicating final films or tapes.

POSTER PANEL
The basic form of outdoor advertising – a structure of blank panel with a standardized size and border, with the advertising message printed on paper ("sheets") and mounted by hand on the panel. A billboard.

POSTTEST
Study of the response to finished advertising after it has been published and telecast in media. Posttests rely on normal patterns of behavior to expose respondents to advertising.

POTENTIAL AUDIENCE
The maximum possible audience.

PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING
The key to efficient TV production; a meeting attended by key production house people, by agency people, and by client people to review a commercial idea throughly before it is shot – to cover all questions of casting, wardrobe, setting, props, SFX, location, etc.

PREEMPTIBLE RATE
An advertising rate that is subject to cancellation by another advertiser’s paying a higher rate, usually in broadcast; the protection period varies by station, and ranges from no notice to two-weeks notice or more (see Fixed rate).

PREEMPTION
Cancellation of a broadcast program for special material or news; the right of a station or network to cancel a regular program to run a special program; a commercial announcement that may be replaced if another advertiser pays a higher or "fixed" rate.

PREEMPTIVE CLAIM
Making a claim that competitors cannot use or have not used, thus putting you in the position of "owning" a product advantage.

PREFERRED POSITION
Specified extra-price of choice advertising location. Preferred position is usually located next to editorial material that has a high interest among the publication's readers.

PREMATURES
Copies returned by the retailer to the wholesaler before the off-sale date (see definition).

PREMIUM
Anything that is offered to the subscriber as an added incentive to purchase a magazine subscription or single copy. One or more free copies of the magazine are considered premiums, as opposed to "samples" (see definition), if they are offered as an extension of or part of a subscription. Premiums are ussually withheld until a subscription is paid. Printed pieces that tie in closely to a magazine’s editorial mission are called editorial premiums; all others are called product premiums (or, flippantly, "greed premiums").

PREMIUM POSITION
Special preferred advertising position generally sold at a higher rate than run-of-paper.

PREMIUM PRICE
A special advertising rate, usually higher, for special positions or other considerations.

PRE-PRINT
A printing of an advertisement before its actual magazine or newspaper publication to give it earlier publicity; especially to inform distributors of the coming campaign.

PRESORT
The process by which a mailer prepares mail so that it is sorted to at least the finest extent required by the standards for the rate claimed. In order to qualify for various postal discounts, mailers or their suppliers presort mail to various levels, from the lowest (finest) level to the highest level, according to three- and fice-digit zip codes, carrier route, walk sequences, entry points and other specified standards as defined by the US.S. Postal Service.

PRESS FEED
The way in which the printing machine is fed with paper.
Sheet, Web.

PRETEST
Study of advertisements or commercials prior to distribution via regular media channels. Advertising may be studied in rough or finished form; pretesting relies on some special means of exposing respondents to the advertisement other than the regular media planned-portfolios, dummy magazines, etc.

PRIMARY AUDIENCE
Individuals in the print media audience who purchase or subscribe to the publication (see Secondary audience).

PRIMARY HOUSEHOLDS
Households into which a publication has been introduced by purchase, either at the newsstand or by subscription, rather than by pass-along.

PRIMARY LISTENING AREA
The geographic area in which a broadcast transmission is static-free and easily received.

PRIMARY READERS
The readers of a publication who reside in primary households.

PRIME TIME
The period of peak television set usage.

PRINTOUT
A printed record of material from a computer or other electronic storage.

PROCESS
The process used to apply ink to paper.
Letterpress, flexographic, collotype, lithographic, gravure...

PROCESS COLORS
The subtractive primaries: yellow, magenta (red), and cyan (blue) plus black in 4-color process printing.

PRODUCT ALLOCATION
The various products that are assigned to specific times or locations in an advertiser’s schedule, when more than one brand is advertised; the amount of the advertising budget that is allocated to individual products.

PRODUCT PROTECTION
Protection that an advertiser wants and sometimes gets against adjacency in a medium to advertising of a competitive product. Has special interest in television advertising.

PRODUCT SAMPLING
The product sample can be delivered with the morning/evening paper and targeted to the audience of the advertiser's choice.
Package rates exists for in-paper advertising done in conjunction with product sampling.

PRODUCTION
The process of converting ideas, scripts, sketches, copy, etc., into finished advertisements, brochures, films, commercials, signs, etc.

PRODUCTION HOUSE
Company hired to shoot a TV commercial; the production house usually supplies the director, camera people, lighting experts, etc.

PROFILE
A term used interchangeably with "audience composition" to describe the demographic characteristics of audiences.

PROGRAM BASIS
A Nielsen cost estimate of a television show that takes into consideration the length-of-commitment discount as determined by whether the program is normally telecast every week, less-than-weekly, more-than-weekly, or one-time-only. This discount is determined by the number of telecasts of the show and not the number used by a specific advertiser. Also, this basis disregards other programs sponsored by an advertiser that affect its discount structure.

PROGRAM COMPATIBILITY
Broadcast programming or editorial content that is suitable for the product or service that is being promoted; suitability of the advertisement or campaign theme with program content.

PROGRAM COVERAGE
The number (or percentage) of television households that can receive a program over one or more stations, because they are in the signal area of some station carrying the program.

PROGRAM DELIVERY (RATING)
Percentage of sample contacted who tuned to a particular program at a particular time.

PROGRAM LINEUP
A listing of stations carrying a program either on a live or delayed basis. Stations are as supplied by the network or as received directly from their affiliates.

PROGRAM STATION RATING
A rating based on the television homes located in the area in which a program was telecast that permits an unbiased comparison of different programs regardless of variation in the number of homes capable of receiving the programs.

PROGRESSIVES (or PROGRESSIVE PROOFS or "PROGS")
Term in four-colour printing referring to a set of four-colour plates or films in which colors are shown separately and then in combination (first yellow, then red, then yellos and red togher; then blue; then yellow, red, and blue together; then black; then all four together).

PROJECTED AUDIENCE
The number of audience members calculated from a sample survey of audience size; the number of broadcast viewers, either in total or per receiving set, based on the sample for the rating percentages.

PROMOTION ALLOWANCE
Money received by a wholesaler or a retailer from a manufacturer or his representative for sales promotion other than advertising.

PROMOTION COPIES
Copies sent to prospective advertisers and their agencies.

PROOF
A copy of an ad which may be shown to an advertiser for purposes of correction.

PROOFREADER
One who compares proof with copy and layout and indicates corrections and changes to be made by the composing room.

PSYCHOGRAPHIC
A term that describes consumers or audience members on the basis of some psychological trait, characteristic of behavior, or life-style.

PUBLIC BROADCASTING SERVICE (PBS)
Distributor and representative organization of public TV. Similar to network, but does not produce programs or have control over station schedules.

PUBLIC SERVICE (PSA)
Advertidsing done for a nonprofit organization.

PUBLISHER'S INFORMATION BUREAU,INC. (PIB)
PIB Service is a monthly analysis of both advertising space and revenue in general magazines, national farm magazines, and newspaper sections. It is designed to give convenient summaries of national advertising expenditures by advertisers and by media.

PUBLISHER'S INTERIM STATEMENT
Certified circulation and distribution statement of publisher made at the publisher's option for a period other than that of a regular six months' Publisher's Statement and issued unaudited, but subject to audit; not applicable to BPA.

PUBLISHER'S STATEMENT
Certified statement of circulation and distribution data for a six-month period make by a publisher and issued unaudited, but subject to audit.

PULL QUOTE
Section of type set apart from the body copy as a graphic element. It pulls out an important quote or statement from the text, and is set in a larger typesize than the body copy.

PULP MAGAZINE
A publication, usually printed low-quality paper, with sensational editorial material; for example; a mystery, detective, or "TV/movie" magazine.

PULSING
A media scheduling technique which produces alternating periods of heavy activity followed by lower activity periods.