Glossary

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C/A, COA or CHADD

A change of address.

CAGING

In fulfillment, the process in which subscription orders and their enclosed payments are separated and then recorded. Traditionally called “caging” because clerks who performed this task were enclosed in wire cages for security purposes. Also referred to as “cashiering.”

CALL LETTERS

The letters that identify a station; for example, ABC, NBC, TVE, CNN…

CALL-OUTS 

Small captions placed next to and describing particularelements in a photo or illustration; often connected by a line to the element they describe. 

CAMERA READY

A complete ad furnished by the advertiser ready to be stripped into the page.

CAMPAIGN

A specific coordinated advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service that extends for a specified period of time. 

CAPS

Nickname for uppercase letters (capitals). 

CAPTION

The words under a picture that describe it. 

CAPTIVE AUDIENCE

An audience that cannot escape your ad; a rider in a crowded bus or a movie theater audience, for example.

CAR CARD

Transit advertisement in or on a bus, subway, or commuter train car.

CARD RATE

The cost of time or space on a rate card.

CARRY OVER EFFECT

The residual level of awareness or recall after a flight or campaign period, used to plan the timing of schedules.

CASH DISCOUNT

Reduction in cost of advertising space or time for cash payment, usually 2% of the net cost.

CASHIERING

A synonym for “caging” that is most often used in the international market. Cashiering is also the term used to encompass a number of services designed to assist companies engaged in international marketing. The most basic of these services include accepting payments in local currencies and providing currency conversions. A company providing cashiering may also provide services such as local-language order-taking and order processing, among others.

CATEGORY DEVELOPMENT INDEX (CDI)

A comparative market-by-market measure of a market’s total sales of all brands of a single product category, used to evaluate the sales potential of a market for a product category or a brand (see Brand Development Index).

CC

The conclusion of a broadcast; for example, this program runs 11:30 p.m.-CC.

C.C.A. (Controlled Circulation Audit)

An organization that audits the circulation statements of publications that are sent free to selected lists.

CANCELLATION DATE

The last date on which it is possible to cancel advertising. Surch dates occur for print, outdoor, and broadcasting.

CARD RATE

The cost of time and space quoted on a rate card.

CASE ALLOWANCE

An allowance or discount a manufacturer or wholesaler gives to a retailer on each case of product purchased in return for which the retailer is to use the money to advertise the product.

CASH DISCOUNT

A deduction allowed by print media (usually 2 percent of the net) for prompt payment (e.g., within 15 to 30 days), generally passed along by the agency to the advertiser to encourage collections.

CASH REFUND OFFER

A type of mail-in offer used by a brand, or group of brands, which offers cash to the consumer upon providing proof of purchase.

CATALOG AGENCY

A commissionable source selling subscriptions, primarily to libraries or companies.

CD

Acronym for circulation director.

CENTER SPREAD

The two facing center pages of a publication; there is a continuous gutter in the center spread.

CHAIN

A broadcast network; also, a newspaper or magazine group of single ownership or control.

CHAIN BREAK (CB)

The time during which a network allows a station to identify itself; usually a 20-second spot (slang “twenty”); now often a 30-second spot plus a ten-second spot, with 20 seconds remaining for identification.

CHARACTER CELL

Rectangular area containing a single character and the space needed to separate it from its neighboring horizontal and vertical characters. 

CHARACTER SET

Collection of all characters available in a font: alphabetic, numeric, punctuation, symbolic, etc. 

CHARACTERS

Individual letters, figures, punctuation marks, etc. of the alphabet.

CHARTER SUBSCRIPTION

Sale of periodical to a purchaser when publication is started or on special terms with guarantee that subscription price will not be increased provided he/she renews regularly at expiration.

CHECKING

Process of recording and verifying actual appearance, reproduction and position of advertisement in magazine, newspaper, publication or use on radio stations, television stations, billboards, etc.

CHECKING COPY

Copy of a publication sent to an advertiser or agency for verifications of insertion.

CIRCULATION

Number of copies issued of an advertising medium in print; by extension, the audience reached by other advertising media, outdoor posters, radio and television programs.

CIRCULATION, CONTROLLED

A term formerly used to describe the distribution of copies free of charge, but in accordance with preconceived pattern of the recipients' eligibility.

CIRCULATION-DRIVEN

A magazine that yields most of its revenue from circulation. Many heavily single-copy magazines and titles published by nonprofit organizations are circulation-driven. In recent years, many publications have become less dependent on advertising by developing more profitable paid circulation and ancillary products. (Also see “Advertising-Driven.”)

CIRCULATION, NON-PAID

That circulation which meets the requirements of qualified circulation and which is sent free of charge to the recipients in the field served.

CIRCULATION, PAID

Copies of publication which have been paid for by the purchasers, not for resale, and are sent to the field served.

CIRCULATION, QUALIFIED

That circulation paid or non-paid, sent to the field served, for which the mailing address, conformance to the field served, recipient qualifaction, and the correct business and/or occupational classifications are verified by auditable documentary evidence dated within 36 months. Qualified recipients must receive every issue of the publication, subject to normal removals and additions.

CITY ZONE

A geographic area that includes the corporate limits of the central city of the market plus any contiguous areas that have substantially the same built-up characteristics of the central city. This provides a method of reporting newspaper circulation according to A.B.C. standards.

CLASS MAGAZINE

A publication that reaches select high-income readers in contrast to magazines with larger circulations, generally referred to as mass magazines.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

Help wanted, positions wanted and other categories of advertisements appearing under distinctive headings, usually with special rates for insertion and usually in uniform and specified type of a single size and usually no display (if set in display, called display classified); most classified is not mass product promotion but applies to service or the sale of a single item.

CLASSIFIED DISPLAY ADVERTISING

Classified advertising of a larger size than most other classified advertising, possibly with headlines, illustrations, and so on; classified advertising with some of the characteristics of display advertising (see Display advertising).

CLAYMATION

Animation technique in which clay figures are designed, created, positioned and photographed to create the effect of movement, similar to animation done with drawing or photos.

CLEARANCE

Coverage of national television households by the number of stations (or markets) accepting a network program for airing; also, gaining available time on stations to carry a program or commercial.

CLEAR TIME

The process of reserving time or time periods with a station or network; checking on available advertising time.

CLICK-THROUGH

An advertising banner or text is linked to the advertiser’s web site. When a web user clicks on it with a mouse cursor, he or she “clicks through” to the advertiser’s web site. Each such event is measured as one “click-through”, also know as “ad click”.

CLICK-THROUGH RATE (CTR)

Known in the industry as CTR, this percentage of total click-throughs versus total impressions measures the effectiveness of your banner design. Example: if 100 impressions of your banner are served, resulting in 10 click-throughs, the CTR is 10%.

CLIP ART

Catalog of professionally prepared artwork subscribed to by local media from which local retailer can select or clip an item to paste right into an ad. Also used by some agencies and professional artists as a fast, inexpensive source of art.

CLIPPING BUREAU

An organization that examines newspapers and magazines and clips articles from them; references and allusions of interest to its clients are sent to them.

CLOSE

End of a time period (closing date or hour) in which an advertisement must be received for a certain issue; deadline.

CLOSE UP

A television or film shot in which one object or face fills the screen.

CLOSURE

A sale resulting from following up on an inquiry from direct mail advertising.

CLUTTER

Excessive amounts of advertising carried by media vehicles, both print and broadcast. Term refers to both the total amount of advertising time and space and to its schedul ing-long strings of consecutive commercials for broadcasting and solid banks of advertisements in print.

COATED STOCK

Paper with a smooth finish.

COLD COLOR

A color that appears bluish or greenish. Also referred to as a cool color.

COLLATERAL MATERIALS

All the accessory nonmedia advertising materials prepared by companies to help achieve marketing or public relations objectives – such as catalogs, flyers, sales presentation materials, etc.

COLLOTYPE

Gelatine coated plates producing continuous tone reproduction.

COLOR CORRECTION

Any photographic, electronic, or manual process used to compensate for the deficiencies of the process inks in the color separation process.

COLOR KEY

A color proof made by exposing the film negatives or positives to pigmented or dyed, light sensitive materials. When assembled, it will be similar in appearance to the finished printed product.

COLOR OVERLAY

In art work a transparent covering over the original; instructions or corrections are marked on it.

COLOR SEPARATION

The process in photography or electronic scanning of separating full-color originals into the primary printing colors in negative or positive form.

COLOR SEQUENCE

The printing order of applying the yellow, magenta, cyan and black inks.

COLOR TRANSPARENCY

A color original made on a color photographic material such as an Ektachrome slide. In order to see the image, light must pass through the positive film.

COLUMN

A vertical arrangement of items on a newspaper page separated by a black line.

COLUMN INCH - Classified

A space one column wide (one and 7/32 inches wide) by one inch (14 agate lines).

COLUMN INCH – ROP

A space one column wide (two & one/sixteenth inches wide) by one inch (14 agate lines).

COMBINATION RATE

A discounted rate offered to encourage use of two or more stations, newspapers, magazines, etc., having common ownership. Occasionally, an advertiser has no choice but to buy the combination as space/time may not be sold separately.

COMBINATION SALE

Subscriptions to two or more publications, sold in combination at a special price. Detailed audit rules govern this practice.

COMMERCIAL IMPRESSIONS

The total audience, including duplication, for all commercial announcements in an advertiser’s schedule (see Gross impressions).

COMMISSION

Renumeration to a salesman or agent, usually in the form of a percentage allowance out of the returns form a transaction; in advertising, the agency commission allowed by the owner of the advertising medium used.

COMPANY PROFILE

A 2 or more pages special advertising report which appears in the centre pages of the Business Section with editorial devoted to a single advertiser. Reprints on art paper are made available to the advertiser at cost, for subsequent use in direct mail and other promotional programmes.

COMPARABILITY

Programs established to define, in each of the markets served by publication members, the terminology used by publishers to report their description of the market, its recipients and their coverage of them. This is done market-by-market on a voluntary basis with the publishers in open meetings with interested advertisers and advertising agencies.

COMPLIMENTARY COPY

Unpaid distribution, courtesy copy sent to advertisers, advertising agencies and prospects.

COMPOSITION

The demographic makeup of an audience.

COMPREHENSIVE

A print ad layout with type, photos, or tightly drawn illustrations, all precisely assembled to look like a finished, printed ad. Called a “comp”.

CONCENTRATION CAMPAIGN

One in which a small number of media vehicles is used to carry a relatively heavy amount of advertising.

CONDENSED TYPE

Narrow or compactversion of the normal typeface.

CONFIRMATION

A media statement that a requested size/time is available to a prospective client.

CONSECUTIVE WEEKS DISCOUNT

A discount granted to an advertiser who uses a minimum number of weeks of advertising.

CONSOLIDATION/CONSOLIDATOR

A consolidator accepts mail for deposit within a type of mail service (ISAL, for example). By combining mail from more than one source, consolidators are often able to obtain volume discounts. A consolidator usually also provides convenience services for the mailer, such as preparing paperwork and obtaining permits.

CONSUMER MAGAZINE

A magazine whose editorial content appeals to the general public, or a specific segment or layer of the public. Differentiated from trade or business magazines.

CONSUMER MARKETING DIRECTOR

Within consumer publishing companies, now the preferred title for the position traditionally known as circulation director.

CONSUMER PROFILE

A demographic description of the people or households that are prospects for a product or service (see Target group).

 

CONTINUITY

A method of scheduling advertising so that audiences have an opportunity to see ads at regular intervals. There are many patterns that could be used, from advertising once each day of the year to once a month.

 

CONTIGUITY RATE

A reduced broadcast advertising rate for sponsoring two or more programs in succession; for example, an advertiser participating in two programs running from 7:00 p.m. – 7:30 p.m., and then 7:30 p.m. – 8:00 p.m., may qualify for a contiguity rate.

 

CONTINOUS SERVICE

Also referred to as “automatic renewal” and “till forbid”. An agreement in which a subscriber allows the publisher to continue to renew the publication at expire, using the subscriber’s initial credit card authorization, or through automatic billing, until the subscriber informs the publisher to stop. Although most U.S. publishers have failed with this technique in the past, many are now pushing to make it work because of the huge potential for reducing costs and increasing profitability. One agency is testing CSs through credit card invoice stuffers, and several publishers are beginning to report initial success with the method. CSs are common in European countries. In Germany, CS is an assumed, legal right on the part of the publisher when an individual signs up for a subscription.

 

CONTINOUS TONE

A photographic image or art with a range of tones from white to black, which has not been screened; that is, has not been broken up into dots for printing.

 

CONTRAST

The visual relationship of the original to its reproduction. It also may refer to the visual relationship of the tonal values within the picture, the difference between light and dark areas or the difference between highlights, middle tones, and shadow areas.

 

CONTROL

In direct mail promotional testing, the basic package against whose results other packages are compared. Usually, the control is the winning package in a previous test or tests.

 

CONTROLLED CIRCULATION

Circulation that is limited to persons who qualify to receive a publication; often distributed free to qualified persons.

 

CONTROLLED CIRCULATION PUBLICATIONS

Publications that confine or restrict their distribution to special groups on a free basis. Some controlled circulation is solicited, although most is non-solicited.

 

CONTROLLED SAMPLING

Any method of selecting a research sample, not dependent on the judgment or convenience of the investigator, but proportioned in any ratio to the parts of a whole population.

 

CONVERSION

Any first-time renewal, or the process of converting nonpaid subscribers to paid subscribers.

 

COOP (or CO-OP)

Short for cooperative advertising, an arrangement whereby national advertisers contribute funds toward the advertising of their products by a local merchant, ordinarily in return for the merchant buying a certain amount of goods for resale to consumers.

 

COOPERATIVE ADVERTISING

Advertising run by a local advertiser in conjunction with a national advertiser. The national advertiser usually provides the copy and/or printing material and also shares the cost with the local retailer. In return, the national advertiser receives local promotion for its product. The name of the local advertiser and its address appear in the ad. (Slang “co-op”).

 

COOPERATIVE ANNOUNCEMENT

Commercial time in network programs that is made available to stations for sale to local or national advertisers.

 

COOPERATIVE PROGRAM

A network broadcast that is also sold on a local basis and sponsored by both national and local advertisers; for example, “The Tonight Show” (see Network cooperative program).     

 

COPIES OF MAGAZINES/NEWSPAPERS

A copy of the magazine/newspaper will be sent with a letter from the publisher or editor as a gift to retail outlets or clients or other promotional purposes.

 

COPY

Contents of an advertisement – written copy, art work, photos, etc. In general, any and all material prepared for publication in the newspaper.

 

COPY SPLITS

Both national and regional advertisers may use print markets to localize their messages with copy splits and dealer listings.

 

COPY TESTING

Research testing to evaluate the communication effectiveness of an ad by measuring consumers’ responses.

 

COPYWRITER’S ROUGH

The roughest kind of sketch by the copywriter showing how writer’s idea might appear in print; first step in layout process.

 

CO-SPONSORSHIP

The participation of two or more sponsors in a single broadcast program/advertisement where each advertiser pays a proportionate share of the cost.

 

CORPORATE DISCOUNTING

Incentives offered to advertisers with numerous brands of profucts; all of the corporation’s advertising schedules are combined for a larger discount level.

 

COST EFFICIENCY

The effectiveness of media as measured by a comparison of audience, either potential or actual, with cost and expressed as a cost per thousand.

 

COST PER RATING POINT (CPR)

The figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to one percentage point of the target group, audience, or population (see Rating point).

 

COST-PER-THOUSAND (CPM)

Total cost divided by the number of thousands in the circulation ormarket.

 

COST PER THOUSAND PER COMMERCIAL MINUTE  (CPM/PCM)

The cost per thousand of a minute of broadcast advertising time.

 

COUNTRY CLUB BILL or GIFT BILL

A bill for gift subscriptions, addressed to the donor, listing the gift recipients, their names and addresses, and the price of each gift. So called because of the country club custom of allowing a member’s guests to run up a tab on the member’s account.

 

COUPONING

Distribution of coupons by a manufacturer through the mail, by household calls, or through media, offering a price reduction at the store on a product.

 

COVER WRAP

Also called a wrap or wrapper. An additional cover stapled or glued to a magazine. Used primarily for circulation and other promotional messages, and also to protect the cover. Many business magazines, and some consumer titles, use wraps as efforts in their renewal or requalification series. Often most effective on the final issue of an expiring subscription.

 

COVERAGE

A term used to define a medium's geographical potential. In newspapers, the number of circulation units of a paper divided by the number of households in a given area. In magazines, the percentage of a given demographic market reached by a magazine. In radio/television, the percentage of television households that can tune in to a station (or stations) because they are in the signal area. In outdoor, the percentage of adults who pass a given showing and are exposed in a thirty-day period. In previous years, coverage meant the same as reach. Today, the meaning will depend on which medium is being discussed.

 

COVER POSITIONS

Premium-priced cover space for magazine or business publication advertisements: 1st cover-outside front cover; 2nd cover-inside front cover; 3rd cover-inside back cover; 4th cover-outside back cover. The first cover of consumer publications is seldom used for advertising.

 

COWCATCHER

A brief commercial announcement at the beginning of a broadcast program.

 

CP

One of the classifications of international mail, referring to the French colis postaux (parcel post).

 

CPM

See Cost-Per-Thousand

 

CREATIVE STRATEGY

Basic formula for intelligent advertising; analyzes situation and decides in advance what you want your advertising to say.

 

CREATIVE TACTICS

Method by which you implement the creative strategy; how you are going to say it.

 

CROSS-MERCHANDISING

In single-copy sales, the joint display of magazines and other consumer goods, usually in the area of the store in which the other goods are traditionally displayed. Cross-merchandising exploits natural synergies between magazines and related consumer products to heighten awareness and bolster sales of the products and the publications.

 

CROSSPLUGS

In alternating sponsorships, permitting each advertiser to insert one announcement into the program during the weeks when the other advertiser in the sponsor, maintaining weekly exposure for both (see Alternate sponsorship)

 

CUMULATIVE AUDIENCE

The net unduplicated audience of a campaign, either in one medium or a combination of media. Sometimes called reach or cume.

 

CUMULATIVE COVERAGE

The net coverage achieved by multiple inertions/spots of a particular media.

 

CUMULATIVE REACH

The number of different households that are exposed to a medium or campaign during a specific time.

 

CUT

In television, an instantaneous change of picture.

 

CUT-IN

The insertion of a local commercial announcement into a network or recorded program.

 

 

 

 

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